India Prepares For Chinese Nuclear Horn

India modernising its nuclear arsenal with eye on China instead of Pakistan: US nuclear experts

By: PTI | Washington | Updated: July 13, 2017 11:03 am

India Nuclear, India nuclear arsenal, atomic arsenal, India, China, Pakistan, Sikkim, US nuclear experts, After Midnight, World news, Indian Express news

India’s nuclear strategy, which has traditionally focused on Pakistan, now appears to place increased emphasis on China, the two experts claimed. (File photo)India continues to modernise its atomic arsenal with an eye on China and the country’s nuclear strategy which traditionally focused on Pakistan now appears to place increased emphasis on the Communist giant, two top American nuclear experts have said. An article published in the July-August issue of the digital journal ‘After Midnight’ has also claimed that India is now developing a missile which can target all of China from its bases in South India.

India is estimated to have produced enough plutonium for 150–200 nuclear warheads but has likely produced only 120–130, wrote Hans M Kristensen and Robert S Norris in the article-“Indian nuclear forces 2017″. India’s nuclear strategy, which has traditionally focused on Pakistan, now appears to place increased emphasis on China, the two experts claimed. While India has traditionally been focused on deterring Pakistan, its nuclear modernisation indicates that it is putting increased emphasis on its future strategic relationship with China,” they wrote.

“That adjustment will result in significantly new capabilities being deployed over the next decade that may influence how India views nuclear weapons’ role against Pakistan,” they said.

Noting that India continues to modernise its nuclear arsenal with development of several new nuclear weapon systems, the two experts estimate that New Delhi currently operates seven nuclear-capable systems: two aircraft, four land-based ballistic missiles, and one sea-based ballistic missile. “At least four more systems are in development. The development program is in a dynamic phase, with long-range land- and sea-based missiles emerging for possible deployment within the next decade,” it said.

India is estimated to have produced approximately 600 kilograms of weapon-grade plutonium, sufficient for 150–200 nuclear warheads; however, not all the material has been converted into nuclear warheads, it said. Based on available information about its nuclear-capable delivery force structure and strategy, we estimate that India has produced 120–130 nuclear warheads, the article said adding that the country will need more warheads to arm the new missiles it is currently developing.

Kristensen and Norris said that the two-stage, solid-fuel, rail-mobile Agni-2, an improvement on the Agni-1, which can deliver a nuclear or conventional warhead more than 2,000 kilometres is probably targeted on western, central, and southern China. Although the Agni-4 will be capable of striking targets in nearly all of China from northeastern India (including Beijing and Shanghai), India is also developing the longer-range Agni-5, a three-stage, solid-fuel, rail-mobile, near-intercontinental ballistic missile (ICBM) capable of delivering a warhead more than 5,000 kilometres (3,100-plus miles), it said.

“The extra range will allow the Indian military to establish Agni-5 bases in central and southern India, further away from China,” the research article said.

The Consequences of the First Nuclear War

The Meaning Of A War

By Koushik Das – Jun 19, 2017

India and Pakistan are currently in turmoil. Apart from the gunfire along the Line of Control (LoC), the two neighbouring countries are issuing statements and counter-statements on various issues, including Kulbhushan Yadav and Kashmir. Warmongers in these two countries are looking for an opportunity to trigger war. Today’s generation, who are watching brutal scenes in audio-visual and social media, lack proper knowledge of the war. We have a duty to make them aware of the horrific consequences of war between the two powerful nations.

The constant conflict between India and Pakistan along the LoC is a common (minor!) issue. Since the partition of India in 1947, the two countries have fought four wars. As per statistics, around 22,600 soldiers were killed and 50,000 were seriously injured in Indo-Pak wars of 1947, 1965, 1971 and 1999. According to information from various sources, about 100,000 families have been directly affected by the wars. Moreover, both countries had to spend a huge amount of money.

At present, India and Pakistan have better nuclear capabilities. International Physicians for the Prevention of Nuclear War and Physicians for Social Responsibility jointly published a report in December 2013 according to which an Indo-Pak nuclear war would have a global impact. It will certainly disturb the balance of environment. Experts opine that half of ozone layer will be destroyed and the direction of monsoon wind will be changed. In case of a nuclear war between the two South Asian neighbours, carbon aerosol particles will be spread in the atmosphere due to atomic explosion. As a result, the production of rice, wheat and cereal crops will be severely affected for a decade. Also, about 200 million people will suffer from famine.

About 140,000 people were killed in Hiroshima when America dropped a nuclear bomb on the Japanese city on August 6, 1945. Approximately 237,000 people died due to various diseases caused by side effects of the bomb. In case of a Hiroshima-like bombing on any Indian or Pakistani city, the third level of human skin will be burnt. According to experts, 20 million people may die in the first week of war and the number of deaths will increase gradually from the second week.

However, some leaders of these two countries, who are unable to see the overall impact of the conflict between the two nations, and their supporters believe that the only solution of the Indo-Pak problems is war. What is the most horrific is that some of them have started considering whether nuclear weapons can be used in the war. Former President of Pakistan General (Retired) Pervez Musharraf had said that nuclear weapons should not be saved to be used on Shab-e-Baraat and other “celebratory” occasions. Pakistan has the fastest growing nuclear weapons programme in the world. By 2022, the country will have enough fissile material to produce 250 nuclear devices. Some leaders from India have also supported the option of using nuclear weapons if there is a war with Pakistan.

We can easily learn lessons from the experience of four large scale wars. But for some Indian and Pakistani leaders, rhetoric and warmongering are important tools to mobilise their limited support base and they hardly give a thought on the consequences of a war. It is important for democracy-loving people to remind them of consequences of war. History says that a bloody war triggers another war. We should remember that the atrocity gives birth to more horrific atrocities.

Out of the fear that Hitler may use nuclear bombs, scientists advised the American government to initiate the nuclear bomb-making programme or the famous ‘Manhattan Project’. The bomb was discovered after four years of relentless efforts. By that time, Germany surrendered. Japan’s defeat was also expected. But, America was determined to take revenge of the ‘Pearl Harbour’ attack. Albert Einstein urged the US not to attack Japan. However, Washington rejected his request and Einstein said after the war that the war was conquered, not the peace.

It is not always possible to calculate the damage beforehand. So, some people want to fight war against their enemies without considering its consequences. The bloody consequences of the past Indo-Pak wars should be the main tropic of discussions in media. Sometimes, history checks our patience. Now, peoples of India and Pakistan will have to show their patience and protect the humanity. They have to make a crucial decision – whether to resolve the problem through peaceful negotiation or to allow the warmongers from both the countries to sway to the perception of general public about the necessity of a war.

India a Threat to Nuclear Peace (Revelation 8)

Indian nuclear weapons are threat to world security: Kings College London reportIndian nuclear weapons are threat to world security: Kings College London report

Posted By: News Desk
LONDON: Apparently timed to appear before upcoming plenary meeting of the Nuclear Suppliers Group (NSG) from June 22-23, King’s College London has released a damning report on Indian nuclear programme.

The report by Project Alpha concludes that the strategic trade with India will enhance its nuclear weapons latency and enable it to push for a third ‘breakout’ of nuclear weapons.

This British assessment raises fears that India surreptitiously superseded even the United Kingdom and France in their arsenal size and could pose a serious threat to their security once geopolitical alliances shift.

A similar conclusion was drawn by Harvard University Belfer Centre’s recent report, titled ‘Indian Nuclear Exceptionalism’, which concludes that India has ostensibly a fissile material stock worth 2,600 nuclear warheads.

This assessment makes India fall in the unenviable third place after the United States and Russia.

A more modest assessment had appeared last year in a petite book by four Pakistani scholars, who placed Indian nuclear arsenal at around 500 warheads – still making it the holder Bronze Medal amongst the nuclear-armed states.

The book titled ‘Indian Unsafeguarded Nuclear Programme’ posits that India has enough indigenous uranium to cover its weapons and energy requirements of more than a century.

If these assessments are true, there’s no reason that the NSG should even consider New Delhi’s application for membership because nuclear trade will only help the country vertically proliferate and at some stage become a threat even to its benefactors.

India’s nuclear self-determination as well as its interests in keeping its future options open would prevent the country from agreeing to other non-proliferation commitments, such as the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) and Fissile Material Cut-off Treaty (FMCT).

The country has the largest unsafeguarded nuclear programme in the developing world and refuses to bring a substantial part it’s so-called civil nuclear programme outside IAEA safeguards.

Likewise, Indian refusal to sign CTBT is because it is ostensibly developing thermonuclear weapons in a secret nuclear city in Karnataka’s Challakere area – producing HEU in access of its needs for fuelling nuclear submarines.

Within this context, the King’s College report highlights that international trade and other cooperation with India is contributing to India’s strategic programmes both directly and indirectly.

This report also highlights the possible erosion of political control of the nuclear arsenal. The Agni-V intercontinental range capable ballistic missile is pre-mated in the same manner as the pre-mated ballistic missiles used on-board Arihant-class SSBNs.

This will have a significant impact on nuclear policy and command and control. Indian entities are at onward-proliferation risk.

The potential danger lies with the re-export of sensitive items and knowledge out of India to foreign powers.

The domestic industry supplying India’s strategic weapons complex and the country’s nuclear programme have reached sufficient technical maturity to export expertise and tangible nuclear and missile-related goods.

The supply of uranium from other countries allows India to burn this safeguarded fuel in their safeguarded facilities whilst using their sizeable natural uranium resources to breed plutonium and produce weapons-grade uranium for an expansion of their nuclear arsenal.

It’s worth recalling that the NSG was created in 1975 as a reaction to Indian nuclear proliferation since 1950s and testing of its first bomb in 1974.

India’s scientific complexes (nuclear, missile, and space) are poorly separated. The nuclear programme in India has been partially submitted to international safeguards, but this remains limited and allows India to exercise de facto nuclear weapons state privileges regarding the production of special fissile material.

This unclear separation should raise concerns about the unwitting or deliberate assistance of foreign entities when engaging with Indian entities who are stakeholders in the strategic weapons programme.

Illicit procurement of dual-use items intended for use in the Indian strategic weapons programme is a dimension of activity difficult to assess.

Nonetheless, this study confirms that such behaviour has occurred in the past and may have waned in recent years as indigenous capabilities increase and India’s ability to procure items from abroad has increased.

The report also identifies and characterises entities involved in India’s strategic weapons programme. KCL’s report is an essential update on the record of Indian entities and will be of interest to government and private sector customers dealing with proliferation issues, particularly with regards to sensitive and dual-use items headed for end-users in India.

This report shall be read carefully by the 48 participating governments of NSG before they meet in Bern in few days.
Alarmingly, 243 entities have contributed to India’s strategic nuclear and missile programmes as key weapon stakeholders, unsafeguarded nuclear fuel cycle entities, defence supply chain entities, developers of auxiliary systems such as vehicles, and entities conducted dual-use research of concern.

There is a wider and deeper network of suppliers and researchers involved in this system. India’s strategic weapons complex has explored and developed additional weapons systems that could be made nuclear-capable should there be political will.

Historically, periods of capability breakout occurred around India’s milestone nuclear tests in 1974 and 1998. In such instances, the initiative of the strategic weapons complex in developing technology demonstrators, has pre-empted political decision making to adopt such technologies as
military capabilities.

India has invested in new special fissile material production facilities. This large unsafeguarded nuclear fuel cycle
encompasses a number of entities performing dual civil and military functions.

India has used informal forums such as the High Energy Materials Society of India or Indian National Society for Aerospace and Related Mechanisms as potential spaces for Indian strategic weapons scientists to meet and exchange ideas with foreign scientists.

The process of Indian science developments taking the lead over policy direction is why India’s technological latency should raise concerns. Furthermore, an acute nuclear crisis in South Asia would see India mobilise its science and technology potential to undergo a new massive expansion of nuclear capabilities – a third breakout.

Indian Navy is on its way to build a naval nuclear deterrent of at least six nuclear powered submarines by 2022 that will carry more weapons than French and British navies combined.

The Indian government’s support for its domestic industry in the face of international sanctions and technology denial has continued since the normalisation of trade relations in 2008 with exceptional American help. The US won a trade waiver to India that year which has allowed it to sign a dozen nuclear deals since then.

Continued special treatment threatens to erode the interlinked non-proliferation regime by demonstrating the viability of achieving nuclear weapon state status outside the NPT and the possibility of Indian reintegration without significant concessions.

This exceptionalism begs the question: how can the abnormalities in the non-proliferation regime be addressed and the technological apartheid can end?

The nuclear-haves are running with the hares and hunting with the hounds.

Acceleration of Nuclear Munitions in India

India's launch of the Agni V missile. Press Information Bureau, Government of India, Wikipedia Commons.Missile Proliferation, India, Prithvi II And Deterrence Stability In South Asia – OpEd – Eurasia Review

By Asma Khalid*

India and Pakistan’s adversarial relations are locked in a classic military security dilemma that is characterized by the production and development of sophisticated nuclear and conventional technologies, leading towards an arms race. After going overtly nuclear, the development of nuclear and missile capabilities of India and Pakistan has been intensified to ensure their security. However, India’s rising missile ambitions has forced Pakistan to build up its nuclear capabilities to maintain credible nuclear deterrence in region.

India started its ballistic missile program in the mid 1980s and pursued it in more systematic manners. Recent trends have revealed that India is developing numerous nuclear delivery systems, trends of missile development includes Shorter and Longer range missiles, MIRVing, and a shift from liquid to solid fuel missiles or ready arsenals. Such advancements and a higher level of readiness by India has challenged the vary basics of strategic and deterrence stability in South Asia.

At the end of 2016, India’s successful test of sea-based ballistic and cruise missile system, Agni V, with a strike range of 5,500- 5,800 Km, capable of carrying payload of 1,500 kg. India claims that Agni V is to provide deterrence against China. Consequently, after this test India test fired various missiles such as the Agni III and successful test of interceptor missile to develop a two-layered Ballistic Missile Defence system. India’s intentions and nuclear capabilities has increased the chances that a bilateral crisis could escalate in a more dangerous way.

Recently, India tested the nuclear capable ballistic missile Prithvi II with a strike range of 350 km, capable of carrying 500 kg to 1,000 kg of warheads. The missile is indigenously developed and undergoing developmental trial and said to capable to hit the major cities of Pakistan from Indian Territory. This factor rejects the Indian claim that its conventional and nuclear programs are China specific as Prithvi II has direct relevance to Pakistan.

India’s missile proliferation has forced Pakistan to response India to maintain its security and regional stability. Principle drive for Pakistan’s missile program is “security” and it is totally Indian specific. It has been repeatedly mentioned by Pakistan’s officials that India’s conventional and nuclear capabilities have forced Pakistan to enhance its nuclear competencies to counter the Indian threat. In order to maintain credible deterrence against Indian threat, Pakistan possesses an adequate number of nuclear capable missiles including Abdali (Hatf-2), Ghaznavi (Hatf-3), Shaheen I (Hatf-4), Ghauri (Hatf-5), Shaheen II (Hatf-6) and Nasr (Hatf-9) that have ability to counter-value the targets in India. Most importantly successful test of Ababeel with the introduction of a missile with multiple independently targetable re-entry vehicles (MIRV) has proved that despite facing defence production gap in conventional forces has successfully maintained technological and deterrent capability by developing effective ballistic missile program.

Hence, the dynamics of ballistic missile development in South Asia present that although India’s ballistic missile defense capabilities are at its full pace of development, at the same time the fact cannot be ignored that India is also dictated by a lack of strategic depth and Pakistan’s full spectrum credible deterrence is capable to deter all forms of Indian aggression.

Subsequently, talking about regional security landscape, it is imperative to mention that regional security outlook is complex such as; Pakistan’s threat perception revolves around India, whereas India’s threat perception comes from China. Under this complex security outlook, India’s quest for missile program has broad regional and global implications. First, India’s expanding missile capabilities marked by improvement in range, payload and accuracy not only indicate that India is heading towards higher level of readiness but also pushing the region towards the destabilizing arms race. Secondly, It has reduces the chances of any bilateral arms control arrangement in South Asia. Third, Pakistan as well as China’s centric missile program of India will further complicate the security dilemma in South Asia. Therefore, India’s increased level of readiness and destabilizing ballistic missile program is a dangerous combination for deterrence and strategic stability in region.

Therefore, India’s expanding fissile material production, nuclear capable ballistic missiles including MIRVs and recent test of Prithvi II is a wakeup calls for major powers and global non-proliferation regime as it is not only disturbing the deterrence stability in region but also raises the international apprehension of regional states regarding India’s growing missile capabilities.

*Asma Khalid is a Research Associate at Strategic Vision Institute, a think-tank based in Islamabad. Email: asmaakhalid_90@hotmail.com.

India Fires Another Nuclear Missile

Nuclear-capable Prithvi-II missile successfully test-fired- India Tv

Nuclear-capable Prithvi-II missile successfully test-fired from Chandipur test range

India on Friday test-fired indigenously developed short range surface–to–surface nuclear-capable ballistic missile Prithvi-II from a test range in Odisha as part of a

user trial by the Army.

India TV News Desk, Balasore [Published on:02 Jun 2017, 12:27 PM IST]

India on Friday test-fired indigenously developed short range surface–to–surface nuclear-capable ballistic missile Prithvi-II from a test range in Odisha as part of a user trial by the Army.  The trial of the surface-to-surface missile with a strike range of 350 km, was carried out from a Mobile Tatra transporter-erector Launcher (MTL) from launching complex-3 of the Integrated Test Range (ITR) at Chandipur in Odisha at around 9.50 am, official sources said.

The trial of the sophisticated missile was successful and the mission objectives were met, they said.

The Prithvi-II missile is capable of carrying 500 kg to 1,000 kg of warheads and is thrusted by liquid propulsion twin engines. It uses advanced inertial guidance system with manoeuvring trajectory to hit its target with precision and accuracy.

The state-of-the-art missile was randomly chosen from the production stock and the entire launch activities were carried out by the Strategic Forces Command (SFC) of the Indian Army and monitored by the scientists of the Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO) as part of training exercise, a DRDO scientist said.

“Carrying a dummy payload, it covered the desired striking range and met all mission objectives successfully,” an official was quoted as saying by the New Indian Express.

The missile was 9 metres high and one metre thick, with a launch weight of 4.6

“The missile trajectory was tracked by the DRDO radars, electro-optical tracking systems and telemetry stations located along the coast of Odisha,” the sources said.

Teams on board the ship deployed near the designated impact point in the Bay of Bengal monitored the terminal events and splashdown.

In salvo mode, two Prithvi-II missiles were successfully test fired in quick succession from the same base, on November 21, 2016.

India Fires Another Nuclear Ready Missile

India test-fires nuclear-capable Prithvi II missile

PT

Amid increasing war hysteria, India on Thursday test-fired its indigenously developed nuclear capable Prithvi-II missile, which has a strike range of 350 km.

The test was a part of a user trial by the Army and was carried out from a mobile launcher from launch complex-3 of the Integrated Test Range (ITR) at Chandipur at 1210 hrs.

“The trial data of the missile conducted by the Strategic Force Command (SFC) shows positive results,” said a defence source. The surface-to-surface Prithvi-II missile is capable of carrying 500 kg to 1,000 kg of warheads and is thrust through liquid propulsion twine engines. It uses advanced inertial guidance system with manoeuvring trajectory to hit its target.

“The missile was randomly chosen from the production stock and the entire launch activities were carried out by the specially formed SFC and monitored by the scientists of Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO) as part of training exercise,” a defence scientist said.

“The missile trajectory was tracked by DRDO radars, electro-optical tracking systems and telemetry stations located along the coast of Odisha,” the source said.

The downrange teams on board a ship deployed near the designated impact point in the Bay of Bengal monitored the terminal events and splashdown, they said.

Inducted into India’s armed forces in 2003, Prithvi II, the first missile to be developed by DRDO under India’s prestigious IGMDP (Integrated Guided Missile Development Program) is now a proven technology.

Such training launches clearly indicate India’s operational readiness to meet any eventuality and establishes the reliability of this deterrent component of the country’s strategic arsenal, they said.

The last user trial of Prithvi-II was successfully conducted on February 19, from the same test range in Odisha.

Russia Outclasses Babylon: Launches ICBM (Dan 7:7)

Russia successfully test fires Topol ballistic missile

http://youtu.be/S2mVAeJ3MD8?a

COURTESY: RT’s RUPTLY video agency, NO RE-UPLOAD, NO REUSE – FOR LICENSING, PLEASE, CONTACT http://ruptly.tv

Russian Strategic Missile Forces successfully test fired a single-warhead Topol intercontinental ballistic missile (ICBM) from the Kapustin Yar test range in the Astrakhan Region in southern Russia on Saturday. The warhead hit a designated target at the Sari-Shagon test range in Kazakhstan. The RS-12M Topol is the predecessor of the Topol-M, with a maximum range of 10,000km (6,125 miles). It is capable of carrying a 550-kiloton nuclear weapon.

Pakistan Shows Their Discontent Over US-India Deal (Rev 17:2)

Pakistan test fires missile

Pakistan Nuclear Missile Test 2:4:15

Pakistan Nuclear Missile Test 2:4:15

The Zimbabwe Daily

Images released on Monday by Pakistan€™s Inter Services Public Relations (ISPR) office show a Pakistani nuclear-capable Ra’ad cruise missile after being launched from a jet fighter during a test firing at an undisclosed location in Pakistan.Pakistan on Monday test-fired a cruise missile capable of carrying a nuclear warhead, just over a week after its arch-rival India reached a new civilian nuclear accord with the United States.

The military described the domestically-developed Ra’ad as a low-flying, terrain-hugging missile€ which can deliver nuclear or conventional warheads to targets up to 350 kilometres away with â€pinpoint accuracy€.

The agreement reached during President Barack Obama’s visit to New Delhi broke a deadlock that stalled a civilian atomic power agreement for years.

But it drew condemnation from Pakistan, which said the deal could destabilise South Asian security.

The US and India in 2008 signed a landmark deal giving India access to civilian nuclear technology. But it had been held up since then by US concerns over India’s strict laws on liability in the event of a nuclear accident.

India and Pakistan are both nuclear-armed in addition to operating civilian atomic plants.

They have fought three wars since independence from Britain in 1947. AFP.

Russian Horn Fires Another Nuclear Capable Missile

Russia Fires Nuclear Missile Friday, Revives Soviet Missile Train To Strengthen Nuclear Capability

Russia Fires Nuclear Missile
Russia launched a missile that could carry 10 nuclear warheads on Friday, the second test launch of a Russian nuclear-capable missile in a month. On Wednesday, a source told Russia’s new agency TASS that the nuclear missile test firing would happen Sunday, November 30, so Friday’s launch — announced by the Russian Defense Ministry — caught the world by surprise.

The “Bulava” inter-continental ballistic missile was fired from the the Alexander Nevsky nuclear submarine from a location in the Barents Sea. The missile — which of course was not carrying a nuclear payload for the test — successfully reached and hit its target on the Russian-held Kamchatka Peninsula, where the Russian Navy maintains a major presence, including a missile testing range.

The Bulava missile, which Russia plans to make the backbone of its nuclear arsenal, has been plagued by misfires and technical issues. But Friday’s launch was the second successful firing of the missile within the last month.

On October 29, Russia also launched a Bulava nuclear missile — that one from the other of the Russian Navy’s two newest nuclear submarines, the Yuri Dolgoruky. Both nuclear submarines are part of the state-of-the art “Borei” class. A third Borei class sub, the Vladimir Monomakh, is scheduled to enter service in December.

Russian Nuclear submarine Alexander Nevsky

The Russian nuclear submarine Alexander Nevsky, which successfully test-launched a Bulava nuclear missile on Friday.

Despite Russia’s flagging economy, Russian President Vladimir Putin is currently overseeing a planned $500 billion defense spending spree as he attempts to re-arm the country whose military has fallen into disrepair over the past two decades, compared to the fearsome strength it displayed during the Soviet Union era.

Russia’s nuclear forces will receive the lion’s share of that massive financial outlay.

The Russian Navy expects to have eight Borei class nuclear submarines, each capable of firing up to 16 Bulava missiles with 10 nuclear warheads each, in the water by 2020.

In another element of the Russian nuclear buildup, the country plans to revive the long-defunct Soviet-era missile trains, according to a report Thursday in the Moscow Times.

Russian nuclear missile train

A Soviet-era Russian nuclear missile train, which could launch a missile from a rail-based system moving around the country.

Trains armed with nuclear missiles “increase the survivability of Russia’s nuclear arsenal, complicating efforts to locate its missiles by moving them quickly and consistently around the country,” the Moscow Times report said.

A top Russian official said the decision to revive the missile train program — begun by the Soviet Union in 1987 and finally ended by Russia in 2005 — was a response to the United States Prompt Global Strike initiative.

Prompt Global Strike, a system currently under development, could deliver a conventional missile attack inside Russia, or anywhere else on the planet, in no more than an hour. Currently, only a nuclear response can be carried out that quickly, with conventional strikes taking at least a day and often much longer to launch.

India Test Fires Nuclear Capable Missile

India test-fires new indigenous nuclear-capable missile

This file photo shows Indian nuclear-capable surface-to-surface Prithvi-II (Earth-II) missile.

Sat Nov 15, 2014 3:0PM

The Prithvi-II (Earth-II) missile blasted off from a mobile launcher at the small sea resort of Chandipur, located about 1,260 kilometers (782 miles) southeast of the capital, New Delhi, at around 10:40 a.m. (0510 GMT) on Friday.

The missile rose kilometers before it nose-dived and went down into the Bay of Bengal waters close to its pre-designated impact point.

The single-stage Prithvi-II, developed by India’s Defense Research and Development Organization (DRDO), is powered by liquid propulsion twin engines, and is equipped with an advanced inertial navigation system.

The missile is capable of carrying 500 to1,000 kilograms of warheads.

On November 9, the Indian army successfully test-fired its medium-range nuclear-capable Agni-II (Fire-II) missile with a range of more than 2,000 kilometers (1,242 miles) from a mobile launcher at Wheeler Island in Odisha State.

India has routinely carried out missile tests since it first demonstrated its nuclear weapons capability in 1998. India has also been engaged in an arms race with Pakistan since the partition of the two countries in 1947.

Both neighbors have refused to sign the Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) and other international regulatory pacts that restrict developing or testing nuclear weapons.

India considers the NPT as discriminatory, while Pakistan has indicated that it will not join the international treaty until its neighbor does so.

MP/HJL/SS